Thursday, September 16, 2010

pressing philosophy

Thales and the olive presses...

1. The Sanskrit word for "philosophy" means ______.

2. The first "noble truth" of Buddhism is ____________. Buddhists seek enlightenment and a condition called _______, which is achieved after one has freed oneself from the world of ________. Some of them, called ___________, postpone entering Nirvana and remain active in the world. Their "superior priest" is called the ___________.

3. (T/F) The Nyayayikas agreed: the world is an illusion.

4. Confucius and Aristotle both emphasized the importance of individual or personal _______. The key Confuciuan virtue is ____, or humanity.

5. ______'s Art of War  says the precondition of love is security.

6. (T/F) Lao Tzu's _______ philosophy de-emphasized social values in favor of spontaneity and simplicity, eventually leading to a loss of the distinction between self and Tao (the "way" of harmony).

7. In contrast to the Christian concept of soul, Taoists think of it as __________________.

8. Anaximander said the basic "stuff" of the world is _________. (earth, air, fire, water, unbounded); his student _________ disagreed,

9. Pythagoras said the universe is composed not of stuff but of __________. He believed in reincarnation, philosophized with women, inspired ______, and is thought to have been the first to call himself a _________.

10. What __________ (Heraclitus, Parmenides, Zeno) actually said about rivers was that different waters flow constantly through them.

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