8. John Locke said the mind originally is a tabula rasa, or _____ ____, until experience furnishes what kinds of ideas? Whose metaphysical speculations in particular did he imply were "rubbish"?
10. Why did Bishop George Berkeley object to Locke's quality distinction?
11. What does "esse ist percipi" mean? If this is true, how do we know that things continue to exist when we're not perceiving them?
12. What was Johnson's refutation of Berkeley? Is it successful?
13. David Hume said we experience only what, instead of causes? To what do they give rise? What does his philosophy pull the proverbial rug out from under? Was he distressed by these conclusions, and unhappy about them?
14. For Hobbes the state of nature is a state of ___, but the natural law is to seek ______.
15. John Locke inspired American constitutional democracy and the French enlightenment, marked by the spread of what ideas? He identified which inalienable rights?
17. Leaders of the French Enlightenment rejected the Calvinist idea of innate ________ and said the aim of life is what?
18. What did Tom Paine say governments owed the people?
19. Who said mind has no sex, and rights have nothing to do with gender?
20. Who said economic freedom would lead to the "greater welfare of all"? Who said we're born naturally good ("noble savages"), in harmony with nature, but are corrupted by society and its institutions?