Tuesday, March 22, 2011

Spinoza to Rousseau

O 76-97

1. From what temporal point of view did Spinoza say it is mind's nature to perceive things?

2. How did Spinoza out-geometrize Descartes? How many substances did he say there are in the universe? He was a  _________ , (solipsist, mystic, pantheist). What did he say was the difference between God and nature, and between mind and body?

3. (T/F) Because he thought everything is necessary and determined, Spinoza denied that humans can be happy or free.

4. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was caricatured by whom, as Dr. ________, for saying that everything is perfect? 

5. How many substances did Leibniz say there are? What did he call them? How do they appear to us? What metaphorical property do these alleged immaterial, non-interactive soul-entities lack?

6. What principle did Giambattista Vico assert? What conventional idea about human nature did he reject?

7. Empiricism, related to Thomas Hobbes' __________ theory of language, contends that knowledge and ideas must be based on experience. What was Hobbes' opinion about words?

8. John Locke said the mind originally is a tabula rasa, or _____ ____, until experience furnishes what kinds of  ideas?  Whose metaphysical speculations in particular did he imply were "rubbish"?
9. Ideas, for Locke, are produced by objects having what two qualities?What did Locke intend to distinguish, with these qualities?

10. Why did Bishop George Berkeley object to Locke's quality distinction?

11. What does "esse ist percipi" mean? If this is true, how do we know that things continue to exist when we're not perceiving them?

12. What was Johnson's refutation of Berkeley? Is it successful?

13. David Hume said we experience only what, instead of causes?  To what do they give rise? What does his philosophy pull the proverbial rug out from under? Was he distressed by these conclusions, and unhappy about them?

14. For  Hobbes the state of nature is a state of ___, but the natural law is to seek ______.

15. John Locke inspired American constitutional democracy and the French enlightenment, marked by the spread of what ideas? He identified which inalienable rights?

16. What did Voltaire want philosophy to be? How did he try to split the difference between optimism and pessimism? What did he say about the great Lisbon earthquake?

17. Leaders of the French Enlightenment rejected the Calvinist idea of innate ________ and said the aim of life is what?

18. What did Tom Paine say governments owed the people?

19. Who said mind has no sex, and rights have nothing to do with gender?

20. Who said economic freedom would lead to the "greater welfare of all"? Who said we're born naturally good ("noble savages"), in harmony with nature, but are corrupted by society and its institutions?


DQ 22mar (13:00-14:25) meredith j. said...

In a pantheistic mindset, would it be humanly possible to eliminate chaos? -the chaos that spawns (man-made) catastrophe and unREASONable sufferin'? If the whole world could adopt/agree on a universal philosophy, like the proposed universal language (Liebniz), would Pantheism be a good one to facilitate the Peace we seek? Science became extremely important in this era and on; the idea of One Unifying Substance lets there be room for God to exist for those who wish/believe It to. Perhaps, only our societal corruption is to blame for any problems. whining, complaining, boredom, INTOLERANCE, 'bad' desires...

Austin Parsons said...

DQ (making up for 3/15) 3/22, TR 2:40-4:05

Spinoza believed that, despite the fact that everything is already predetermined, people can still naturally have Free Will. They can do this by understanding their actions and how they fit into the grand scheme of the universe.

Is Free Will this subjective? Can it be possible for one man to have Free Will, and for another not to? Can it simply be just a mindset? And can you only truly be happy when you've achieved it?

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