O 98-114, PW 89-101
1. What did the Romantics emphasize? What was their view of rationalism and empiricism?
12. Kant proposed to limit what, to make room for what? What "great ideas" did he hope to place beyond the reach of science?
13. What, according to Kant, do we do to the objects of our experience, with the result that we don't have to infer or prove the existence of an external world? (TIP: This is a useful mnemonic, worth remembering.) To whom was this a direct response?
14. How did Kant reconceive Descartes' conception of self, or "thinking thing"?
15. How did Kant say we demonstrate our freedom? When are we unfree?
16. Why did Kant think faith in an unproven God a "rational postulate" (though not knowledge)?
17. Who did Hegel call "world history on horseback"? What did he consider philosophy's final goal?
18. What was Hegel's term for what he considered the all-enveloping "cosmic soul" that includes us as part of all nature and history? What did he see as its most important implication?
19. What Kantian thesis about knowledge and consciousness did Hegel reject? What Aristotelian thesis did he accept? What does this imply about the self? What "sensibility" did he embrace?
20. What was Hegel saying about philosophy when he spoke of the "Owl of Minerva"?
21. What kind of hero were the young Romantics looking for? Who did they find? What did their hero most despise in Hegel's philosophy?
22. How did Schopenhauer adapt Kant's philosophy to his own? What was his view of the point or purpose of existence? What did he share with the Buddhists? How did he think we could break free of the controlling and all-consuming Will?